Most genealogists are familiar with the federal population census records and begin their research with these records. But did you know that the Census Bureau also took a series of Nonpopulation Census records between 1850 and 1880? They included mortality, agricultural, industrial, social statistics and defective, dependent, and delinquent schedules. These censuses cover the 12 months preceding the take of the census. For example, the 1860 mortality schedules record deaths that occurred between June 1, 1859, and May 31, 1860. The censuses are arranged by year and state.
Even though, unlike the federal population schedules, these schedules do not list everyone, they can provide valuable information you may not find elsewhere. For example, the mortality schedules often provide the only record of an individual’s death. This is especially important if you are researching an ancestor who was a slave, as there are almost never any death records for slaves.
Here we see Louesa Washington (line 18), who was a black female of 25 years. She was a slave in Frederick County, Virginia and she died in May of 1860 due to consumption. The schedule indicates that she had been ill for 425 days before she passed away.
The mortality schedules can be viewed on www.ancestry.com. The other nonpopulation schedules are available on microfilm.